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                                                     ARAKA research group

     According to Choppin, research on textbooks has spread from 1960 onwards. He affirms that this is the date when content started being studied –research on both the implicit and explicit content-. One of the reasons to reinforce research is the expansion of teaching, and the difficulties it will cause in terms of adapting contents and pedagogical instruments, considering the increasing heterogeneity of people.

The Education Systems of Spain and France condition our teaching in the Basque Country. Considering that the textbook we use at school is the real specification of the curriculum, and that its contents reflect the social, cultural and economic events, our aim is to analyse how The Basque is described.

We have mainly analysed the textbooks which have been published in Basque all over the twentieth century, but we have also worked with those which have been written in Spanish and French. As a result of the changes in teaching, we have divided the development of textbook publishing in the twentieth century into tree periods of time, where we analyse what is explained in the contents and how it is explained as well as the reference which is used. The first task is to carry out the quantitative approach:

1: With regard to the Basque textbook publishing development, the general quantity, explaining which language it is used, Basque or Spanish.

2: Details about iconography, the number of icons, or the type of icons which are used in textbooks.

3: The contents and stereotypes there are in textbooks.

In the second place we define and study the treatment given to all the aspects associated with the Basque language and the Basque culture on the one hand, science, technology and professions on the other hand, and territory and history in last place: which is the "behaviour" of each publishing house when describing the Basque culture, whether they give the same treatment to all the variables they have had.



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